- Capital: La Paz
- Area: 44 380 miles² (71 430 km²), 3.7% of the national territory
- Topography: mountains and coastal plains with altitudes ranging from sea level to a maximum of 6,857 feet above sea level in the Sierra de la Laguna (2,090 m)
- Climate: most of the state has a dry, desert climate. Maximum temperatures may exceed 104ºF (40ºC) in the summer and the minimum is less than 32ºF (0ºC) in the winter. In Los Cabos the climate is hot with an average annual rainfall of 10 inches. More about the weather of the Baja California Peninsula
- Flora:The arid soil favors cacti like the cardón (giant Mexican cactus), shrubs and sagebrush, and trees like torote (elephant tree), oak and pine
- Fauna: numerous species of reptiles, coyotes, bighorn sheep, raccoons and deer, migratory birds like golden eagles and ospreys, and marine life including grey, blue and humpbacked whales and orcas
The state of Baja California Sur is bordered to the north by the state of Baja California, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez). The state includes islands in the Pacific (Natividad, Magdalena, and Santa Margarita), as well as several islands in the Gulf of California.
El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve
Baja California Sur is home to the Reserva de la Biósfera El Vizcaíno, Latin America's largest protected area with an extension of 15 534 miles² (25,000 km²). This vast desert with scrub brush and dense cacti stretches from the Vizcaíno Peninsula on the Pacific across to the Sea of Cortez. In the heart of this nature reserve, the Sierra de San Francisco is a declared Unesco World Heritage Site, due to the spectacular pre-hispanic rock paintings in some of its caves. The small town of San Ignacio is a good starting point for excursions to the sierra and here you can also see Baja’s most beautiful church, the 18th century Dominican mission church.
Whale Watching in Baja California Sur
From the end of December through March, great grey whales from Siberian and Alaskan waters swim 6,000 to 10,000 km to the warm waters of Baja's lagoons to give birth and raise their calves for three months before starting their long journey back to their feeding grounds. Seeing these whales can be an amazing experience!
San Ignacio is the gateway to one of Baja’s main whale watching areas, the Laguna San Ignacio south of Vizcaíno Peninsula, besides the Laguna Ojo de Liebre, also known as Scammon’s Lagoon south of Guerrero Norte and Puerto López Mateos near Isla Magdalena as well as Puerto San Carlos in the Bahia Magdalena further south.
Baja California Sur's Missions
Loreto is located on Baja California Sur's east coast and is considered one of the state's oldest settlements. Founded in 1697 by Father Juan Maria Salvatierra as Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto, today it is a water-sports paradise: world-class fishing, kayaking, snorkeling and diving attract thousands of visitors year-round. After Loreto, the religious order of the Jesuits built a new mission approximately every three years. When the Spanish King Carlos III expelled the Society of Jesus from all Spanish territory in 1767, the 25 missions in the southern part of the peninsula were taken over by Dominicans and Franciscans. Remains of these missions (some of them are well restored) can still be seen in San Javier, San Luis Gonzaga and Santa Rosalía de Mulegé, among others.
Following the main road southbound, you reach La Paz, the peaceful, modern capital of Baja California Sur, with beautiful beaches and some charming colonial buildings and flower-filled patios dating back to its foundation in the early 19th century. La Paz' pre-Lent carnaval with dancing, games and a colourful street parade has become one of Mexico’s finest.
Los Cabos and Todos Santos
Just south of the Sierra de la Laguna Biosphere Reserve, a nature paradise for experienced hikers, Baja’s most touristically developed area begins. Beautiful beaches and luxurious resort hotels line the peninsula's southern tip from San José del Cabo to Cabo San Lucas, catering to sun lovers, party animals, surfers and golfers. Read more about Los Cabos. Todos Santos is a quieter, more bohemian-style town with art galleries, chic boutiques, and some of the most beautiful beaches of the entire peninsula.
How to get there: The following international airports serve Baja California Sur: the San Jose del Cabo International Airport (SJD) and the General Manuel Marquez de Leon Airport in La Paz (LAP). A ferry service, Baja Ferries runs between Baja California Sur and the mainland, with routes between La Paz and Mazatlán.