One of Mexico's most important sites, for centuries Chichen Itza was the political, religious and military center of the North of the Yucatan Peninsula. The city flourished from 300 to 900 A.D., was abandoned, then re-established from 1000 to 1250 under Toltec rule. This is why there are two areas of Chichen, the "old" and the "new." The most well-known building of Chichen Itza is the Castillo, or "Castle," which was dedicated to Kukulcan, the Plumed Serpent. On the equinoxes a play of light and shadow on the stairs appears to take the form of a serpent.
Location: 75 miles (120 km) east of Merida and 60 miles (195 km) west of Cancun.
Functioning between 400 and 1000 A.D., Cobá was built around four small lakes. Only a few of its estimated 6,500 structures have been uncovered. It was the hub of a complex network of causeways called sacbeoob (plural of sacbe- meaning white road). The Nohuch Mul Pyramid, the tallest in the area, has 120 steps and if you don't suffer from vertigo, from the top you can enjoy a breathtaking view of the surrounding jungle.
Location: 95 miles (150 km) from Cancun, 28 miles (45 km) from Tulum
Cobá Ruins Visitor's Guide
The original name of this site is unknown. The present name refers to a stone sculpture that was found on-site that depicts a head with an elaborate headdress. This stone is on exhibit in the Cancun Archaeology Museum. The excavated area contains 47 ancient structures which formed the center of a small city devoted to maritime trade and fishing.
Location: within Cancun's tourist resort area.
The site was part of a triple alliance with Chichen Itza and Uxmal, but was at its peak after the fall of Chichen Itza, between 1250 and 1450. It is considered the last great Mayan stronghold. The archaeological zone covers 4 square km and that area contains vestiges of nearly 4000 structures, mostly residential buildings. Several of the constructions contain mural paintings. Mayapan has a Castillo which is a replica of the one in Chichen Itza.
Location: 27 miles (43 km) south east of Merida
Location: On the northern part of Cozumel island, Transversal highway Km 7.5
It is believed that the original name of this city meant dawn. The most spectacular aspect of Tulum is its stunning location right on a cliff by the clear turquoise water of the Caribbean Sea. The fortress city of Tulum had a population of only five to six hundred people within its walls, probably only nobles, and commoners dwelled outside the walls. The site was at its peak between 1200 and 1520 and was one of the first sites mentioned by the Spaniards. The most important structures within the site are El Castillo, which functioned as a navigational aid, directing Mayan craft through the break in the reef, and the Temple of the Frescoes.
Location: 81 miles (131 km) south of Cancun on Highway 307.
Tulum Ruins Visitor's Guide
This is the most important site of the Puuc region and was at its peak between 600 and 1000 A.D. The legend of the city's founding involves a dwarf who outwitted the king, became the new ruler and magically constructed the buildings of Uxmal. The Pyramid of the Dwarf (also known as the Pyramid of the Magician) dominates the site. Many of the buildings are arrayed in ornate stone carvings .
Location: Uxmal is located 48 miles (77 km) south of Merida on federal highway 261.
Xel-Ha"Where the water is born"
A water park with ruins on-site, Xel-Ha's archaeological zone is only partially excavated. This was once an important sacred site where a variety of gods were honored. It was also a key ocean port and trade center. It went through two periods of flourishing, from 100 to 600 and again from early 12th century until the arrival of the Spaniards in the 1500s.
Location: 75 miles (122 km) south of Cancun